What if the invention of mobile phones never happened? Well, we wouldn't be able to communicate the way we do now. We have a lot to thank mobile phone history for. Mobile phone history started in 1947 when Bell Labs engineers W. Rae Young and Douglas H. Ring realized that utilizing small hexagonal cells can increase the capacity of mobile phones for traffic at a substantial rate. However, at that time, the technology to do that was still nonexistent.
Mobile Telephone system A (MTA) was the first mobile phone system that was fully automatic. This was created by Ericsson and was released commercially in Sweden during 1956. Mobile phones during this time weighed 40 kg. Thankfully, mobile phones have evolved into smaller versions since then. The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first handheld mobile phone became available to the U.S. market in 1983. These mobile phones became increasingly popular during the 1980s because of the introduction of "cellular" phones which were based in cellular networks that had several base stations located close to each other. Analog transmissions were being used by all mobile phone systems. It was Motorola that introduced the first truly portable handheld phone.
The introduction of mobile phone systems such as IS-136, iDEN, IS-95, and GSM started during the 1990s. It was in the United States that the first digital cellular phone call was made. In 1991, Radiolinja, the first GSM network opened in Finland. Along with the introduction of 2G (2nd generation) systems were the tiny 100-200g handheld phones which instantly became the norm. This change was made possible by improvements in batteries and electronics. The 2G phone systems were characterized by the introduction of fast and advanced phone to network signaling as well as digital circuit switched transmission.
Roughly ten years later, 3G (3rd generation) was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan. These mobiles already offer TV and video services, which has made these gadgets even more popular. Quite a number of these phones can also connect to the Internet, which makes them multimedia computers already. It is said that in the future, 4G (4th generation) system will also be introduced. This will pave the way for low cost, high speed data transmission. This will also offer users with a high degree of synchronization and personalization between a wide array of user applications.
With the fast development of technology nowadays, mobile phone history will surely evolve and offer us with new innovations.
The following is a list of mobile phone terms used around the world.
Mobile phones are known as:
cep telefonu (pocket phone) in Turkey
cellulair, mobile or telefon in Lebanon.
cell phones or cell in Canada, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and the United States. (Written as one word, cellphone, in New Zealand).
celular or cel in Albania.
celular,and even celula or a bit older term: movicom (because of the first company to have a cell phone network) in Uruguay.
celulares (singular form celular) in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Puerto Rico and other Spanish-speaking countries except Spain as the Spanish word for Cellular. It is also used in Portuguese-speaking Brazil.
clamshell in the United States and UK, a phone that opens up to reveal the keypad, microphone, and earpiece; these are typically more compact than other designs. Often called "flip phones" (although 'flip phone' is a trademark of Motorola). Clamshell phones became very popular in the United States after the introduction of Motorola's StarTAC in 1996. While this style referred to as a "clamshell" (a term that is already outdated), few if any people referred to their telephone as a clamshell. Rather, this term is used to refer to the cell phone style.
dzhiesem (джиесем) (from GSM) in Bulgaria, refers only to GSM mobile phones
di động (mobile phone) , điện thoại cầm tay (handy phone) or môbai in Vietnam.
farsími (Official for all mobile phone systems), Gemsi (means young sheep, referring to GSM), GSM-sími (For phones using the GSM System), or NMT-sími (For phones using the Nordic Mobile Telephone-system) in Iceland
fònaichean làimhe (meaning hand phone; singular form fòn làimhe) or fònaichean phoca (meaning pocket phone; singular form fòn phoca) in Scottish Gaelic
ffôn symudol in Welsh
fón póca, teileafón póca ('pocket telephone') or guthán soghluaiste ('mobile telephone') in Irish
gar utas (Mongolian: Гар утас), meaning "hand phone" is used in Mongolian. Informally, both gar (hand) and utas (phone) is used.
GSMs in Belgium (written gsm in Dutch and GSM in French).
hand phones or handphones (핸드폰) in many Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea, encompassing cell phones or any wireless phones connected to telecommunication providers. In South Korea, it is also called hyudae jeonhwa (휴대 전화; 携帶電話) or hyudaepon (휴대폰).
handyphone in the Philippines by Globe Telecom (used by the main mobile branch of Globe, Globe Handyphone)
Handy (plural form Handys), pronounced /hɛndi/, a pseudo-anglicism that is used in Austria and Germany for a mobile phone (rare alternative spelling: Händi). In German, the word "Handy" has the meaning of "Hand-Telefon" or "handgehaltenes Mobiltelefon" (translated to English: "handheld mobile telephone"). The term possibly derived from the 1940s product name Handie-Talkie for a handheld military radio. (The backpack version was introduced as Walkie-Talkie.)
telefon-hamráh or hamráh (تلفن همراه, literally companion phone) in Iran,mobile is also very common in informal conversation .
jawwal (mobile) in Saudi Arabia
ګرزندوی (Gharzandoi) (mobile)& تثلفون همراه in Pashto and Dari (Persian), Afghanistan
keitai (携帯, portable, short for keitai denwa, 携帯電話, portable telephone) in Japan; semantic development is very close to words like mobile. "Handy Phone" is also used (ハンディフォン)
khelyawi (cellular) in Lebanon
kinitó (κινητό), short for kinitó tiléfono (κινητό τηλέφωνο), which means mobile phone in Greece and Cyprus
komórki (singular form komórka) or telefon komórkowy, meaning cells/cellular phone in Poland
mahmool (محمول) or Jawwal (جوَّال') or Khelyawi (خليوي) or Mobile (موبايل) in Arabic
matkapuhelimet (literally travel-phones, singular form matkapuhelin) or kännykät (singular form kännykkä, very close in meaning to the German Handy) in Finland; actually trademarked by Nokia in 1987 but fallen into generic use and would probably not be upheld any more if contested in a court of law
moby, short for "mobile" (in the sense of "mobile phone"), a slang term in everyday usage in the UK.
mobieltje in the Netherlands
mobifon (мобифон), a contraction of mobilen telefon (мобилен телефон) in Bulgaria, which came into usage with the introduction of 1G mobile phones. As GSM mobile phones became more widely used, some started calling them dzhiesem as to distinguish them from 1G phones. The remaining 1G phones are still referred to as mobifon, while GSM phones are referred to by most as dzhiesem, although it is looked down upon by some.
mobil in Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Norway, Slovakia and Sweden
mobilais telefons or mobilais in Latvia
mobile, short for "mobile phone" (in the sense of "cellular phone"), a term in everyday usage in most English-speaking countries such as the Australia, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, UK. Also commonly used by industry insiders in the United States.
mobilka (мобілка) as a slang term in Ukraine
mobilni telefon (мобилни телефон) in Serbia. Abbreviated forms are frequently used: mobilni (мобилни) or just mob (моб)
mobilní telefony (singular form mobilní telefon), or simply mobily (mobil) in Czech Republic
mobilny telefon (= mobile phone), or mobilnik, mobila for short. Older names are sotovy telefon (= cell phone) and trubka, truba (= handset) in Russia
mòbils in Andorra
mobiltelefon in Denmark, Germany (Mobiltelefon, formerly Mobiltelephon, is the official German term), Hungary, Norway, Sweden (sometimes nalle in Sweden, meaning teddy bear translated to English, originally referring to the term yuppie-nalle since until the late 1980s only rich yuppies could afford them and they showed them off in a way that looked as they were carrying a yuppie teddy bear, nowadays only nalle is used representing that people always carry them around and feel insecure if they misplace them, like a child missing their teddy bear)
mobilus telefonas or mobilus in Lithuania
mobitel in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia. They are named after a company called Mobitel which was the first national cell phone network operator in Slovenia. The name is made from the words for Mobile and Telephone.
móviles (móvil) in Spanish and mòbils (mòbil) in Catalan in Spain
mue thue (มือถือ, literally hand-held) in Thailand
muthophone (phone in the palm) in Bangladesh. This term is used because mobile phone can be held and used in palm. This term is popular among teenagers and in the literary world of Dhaka.
nalle in Sweden and other Nordic/Scandinavian countries. In Scandinavian, 'nalle' actually means 'teddy bear'; connoting the pet-like status which mobile phones sometimes have.
Natel ("Nationales Autotelefon") in Switzerland
ponsel (telepon selular, cellular phones), or HP (shortened from Hand Phone, but pronounced ha-pe, not like HP in English) in Indonesian
poŝtelefonoj ("pocket phones", pronounced poshtelefonoy) by users of Esperanto
portable (literally portable) in France
sau kei (Simplified Chinese:手机 Traditional Chinese:手機), Cantonese transliteration for "手机" or "手機", a similar term to that of handphone or mobile phone but is translated to mean hand's device or hand's device telephone, used in Canonese speaking areas Hong Kong and Guangdong Province of China.
shou ji (Simplified Chinese:手机 Traditional Chinese:手機), the Chinese pinyin spelling translation for "手机" or "手機", a similar term to that of handphone or mobile phone but is translated to mean hand's device or hand's device telephone, used in Mandrin speaking areas Mainland China and Taiwan.
slider, a form where the two halves slide together. This design allows the main display to be shown while the keypad is hidden. [where is it used?]
sotka (short form of cellular phone in Russian language) in Uzbekistan
telefon bimbit (mobile phone) in Bahasa Malaysia
telefon selolari (cellular phone) in formal Hebrew. Most of the Israelis say pelephone (פלאפון) like the name of the first mobile company.
telefon mobil (pl. telefoane mobile), but the short form is more common: mobil (mobile) in Romania; celular (pl. celulare) is also common
telefonino (meaning small phone), or cellulare (short form for telefono cellulare) in Italy
telefonito (meaning little phone) in Argentina.
telefoonka gacanta (literally "hand's phone") in Somalia
telemóvel ("telefone móvel", "mobile telephone") in Portugal, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, East Timor, Macau and Mozambique.
telephono cellular by speakers of Interlingua
teleponong selyular (cellular telephone) in the Philippines, used when speaking in Filipino
xing dong dian hua (行動電話) in Taiwan, literal Chinese translation of "mobile phone".
A mobile phone (also known as a wireless phone, cell phone, or cellular telephone) is a short-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialised base stations known as cell sites. In addition to the standard voice function of a mobile phone, telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones).
According to internal memos, American Telephone & Telegraph discussed developing a wireless phone in 1915, but were afraid deployment of the technology could undermine its monopoly on wired service in the U.S.
Japan's first commercial mobile phone service was launched by the NTT in 1978. By November 2007, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world had reached 3.3 billion, or half of the human population (although some users have multiple subscriptions, or inactive subscriptions), which also makes the mobile phone the most widely spread technology and the most common electronic device in the world.
The first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email, the Nokia Communicator, was released in 1996, creating a new category of multi-use devices called smartphones. In 1999 the first mobile internet service was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan under the i-Mode service. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world accessed the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i-Mode at least occasionally using a mobile phone rather than a personal computer.
Mobile phone towerMobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base stations fitted with microwave antennas. These sites are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled communication
This Railfone found on some Amtrak trains in North America uses cellular technology.See also: List of mobile network operators
An increasing number of countries, particularly in Europe, now have more mobile phones than people. According to the figures from Eurostat, the European Union's in-house statistical office, Luxembourg had the highest mobile phone penetration rate at 158 mobile subscriptions per 100 people, closely followed by Lithuania and Italy. In Hong Kong the penetration rate reached 139.8% of the population in July 2007. Over 50 countries have mobile phone subscription penetration rates higher than that of the population and the Western European average penetration rate was 110% in 2007 (source Informa 2007). The U.S. currently has one of the lowest rates of mobile phone penetrations in the industrialised world at 85%.
There are over five hundred million active mobile phone accounts in China, as of 2007, but the total penetration rate there still stands below 50%. The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world was estimated at 2.14 billion in 2005. The subscriber count reached 2.7 billion by end of 2006 according to Informa, and 3.3 billion by November, 2007, thus reaching an equivalent of over half the planet's population. Around 80% of the world's population has access to mobile phone coverage, as of 2006. This figure is expected to increase to 90% by the year 2010.
In some developing countries with little "landline" telephone infrastructure, mobile phone use has quadrupled in the last decade. The rise of mobile phone technology in developing countries is often cited as an example of the leapfrog effect. Many remote regions in the third world went from having no telecommunications infrastructure to having satellite based communications systems. At present, Africa has the largest growth rate of cellular subscribers in the world, its markets expanding nearly twice as fast as Asian markets. The availability of prepaid or 'pay-as-you-go' services, where the subscriber is not committed to a long term contract, has helped fuel this growth in Africa as well as in other continents.
On a numerical basis, India is the largest growth market, adding about 6 million mobile phones every month. With 256.55 million total landline and mobile phones, market penetration in the country is still low at 22.52%. India expects to reach 500 million subscribers by the end of 2010. Simultaneously, landline phone ownership is decreasing gradually and accounts for approximately 40 million connections.
There are three major technical standards for the current generation of mobile phones and networks, and two major standards for the next generation 3G phones and networks. All European and African countries and many Asian countries have adopted a single system, GSM, which is the only technology available on all continents and in most countries and covers over 74% of all subscribers on mobile networks. In many countries, such as the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, India,, South Korea, and Vietnam, GSM co-exists with other internationally adopted standards such as CDMA and TDMA, as well as national standards such as iDEN in the USA and PDC in Japan. Over the past five years several dozen mobile operators (carriers) have abandoned networks on TDMA and CDMA technologies, switching over to GSM.
With third generation (3G) networks, which are also known as IMT-2000 networks, about three out of four networks are on the W-CDMA (also known as UMTS) standard, usually seen as the natural evolution path for GSM and TDMA networks. One in four 3G networks is on the CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. Some analysts count a previous stage in CDMA evolution, CDMA2000 1x RTT, as a 3G technology whereas most standardization experts count only CDMA2000 1x EV-DO as a true 3G technology. Because of this difference in interpreting what is 3G, there is a wide variety in subscriber counts. As of June 2007, on the narrow definition there are 200 million subscribers on 3G networks. By using the more broad definition, the total subscriber count of 3G phone users is 475 million.
Culture and customs
Cellular phones allow people to communicate from almost anywhere at their leisure.Between the 1980s and the 2000s, the mobile phone has gone from being an expensive item used by the business elite to a pervasive, personal communications tool for the general population. In most countries, mobile phones outnumber land-line phones, with fixed landlines numbering 1.3 billion but mobile subscriptions 3.3 billion at the end of 2007.
In many markets from Japan and South Korea , to Scandinavia, to Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, most children age 8-9 have mobile phones and the new accounts are now opened for customers aged 6 and 7. Where mostly parents tend to give hand-me-down used phones to their youngest children, in Japan already new cameraphones are on the market whose target age group is under 10 years of age, introduced by KDDI in February 2007. The USA also lags on this measure, as in the US so far, about half of all children have mobile phones. In many young adults' households it has supplanted the land-line phone. Mobile phone usage is banned in some countries, such as North Korea and restricted in some other countries such as Burma.
Given the high levels of societal mobile phone service penetration, it is a key means for people to communicate with each other. The SMS feature spawned the "texting" sub-culture amongst younger users. In December 1993, the first person-to-person SMS text message was transmitted in Finland. Currently, texting is the most widely used data service; 1.8 billion users generated $80 billion of revenue in 2006 (source ITU). Many phones offer Instant Messenger services for simple, easy texting. Mobile phones have Internet service (e.g. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode), offering text messaging via e-mail in Japan, South Korea, China, and India. Most mobile internet access is much different from computer access, featuring alerts, weather data, e-mail, search engines, instant messages, and game and music downloading; most mobile internet access is hurried and short.
The mobile phone can be a fashion totem custom-decorated to reflect the owner's personality. This aspect of the mobile telephony business is, in itself, an industry, e.g. ringtone sales amounted to $3.5 billion in 2005.
The use of a mobile phone is prohibited in some train company carriagesMobile phone use can be an important matter of social discourtesy: phones ringing during funerals or weddings; in toilets, cinemas and theatres. Some book shops, libraries, bathrooms, cinemas, doctors' offices and places of worship prohibit their use, so that other patrons will not be disturbed by conversations. Some facilities install signal-jamming equipment to prevent their use, although in many countries, including the US, such equipment is illegal. Some new auditoriums have installed wire mesh in the walls to make a Faraday cage, which prevents signal penetration without violating signal jamming laws.
Trains, particularly those involving long-distance services, often offer a "quiet carriage" where phone use is prohibited, much like the designated non-smoking carriage of the past. In the UK however many users tend to ignore this as it is rarely enforced, especially if the other carriages are crowded and they have no choice but to go in the "quiet carriage". In Japan, it is generally considered impolite to talk using a phone on any train -- e-mailing is generally the mode of mobile communication. Mobile phone usage on local public transport is also increasingly seen as a nuisance; the city of Graz, for instance, has mandated a total ban of mobile phones on its tram and bus network in 2008 (though texting and emailing is still allowed).
Mobile phone use on aircraft is starting to be allowed with several airlines already offering the ability to use phones during flights. Mobile phone use during flights used to be prohibited and many airlines still claim in their in-plane announcements that this prohibition is due to possible interference with aircraft radio communications. Shut-off mobile phones do not interfere with aircraft avionics; the concern is partially based on the crash of Crossair Flight 498. The recommendation why phones should not be used during take-off and landing, even on planes that allow calls or messaging, is so that passengers pay attention to the crew for any possible accident situations, as most airplane accidents happen on take-off and landing.
By government agencies
Main article: Lawful interception
Law enforcement have used mobile phone evidence in a number of different ways. Evidence about the physical location of an individual at a given time can be obtained by triangulating the individual's cellphone between several cellphone towers. This triangulation technique can be used to show that an individual's cellphone was at a certain location at a certain time. The concerns over terrorism and terrorist use of technology prompted an inquiry by the British House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee into the use of evidence from mobile phone devices, prompting leading mobile telephone forensic specialists to identify forensic techniques available in this area. NIST have published guidelines and procedures for the preservation, acquisition, examination, analysis, and reporting of digital information present on mobile phones can be found under the NIST Publication SP800-101.
In the UK in 2000 it was claimed that recordings of mobile phone conversations made on the day of the Omagh bombing were crucial to the police investigation. In particular, calls made on two mobile phones which were tracked from south of the Irish border to Omagh and back on the day of the bombing, were considered of vital importance.
Further example of criminal investigations using mobile phones is the initial location and ultimate identification of the terrorists of the 2004 Madrid train bombings. In the attacks, mobile phones had been used to detonate the bombs. However, one of the bombs failed to detonate, and the SIM card in the corresponding mobile phone gave the first serious lead about the terrorists to investigators. By tracking the whereabouts of the SIM card and correlating other mobile phones that had been registered in those areas, police were able to locate the terrorists.
The Finnish government decided in 2005 that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters was the mobile phone network. In Japan, mobile phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters to their customers free of charge . In the event of an emergency, disaster response crews can locate trapped or injured people using the signals from their mobile phones. An interactive menu accessible through the phone's Internet browser notifies the company if the user is safe or in distress. In Finland rescue services suggest hikers carry mobile phones in case of emergency even when deep in the forests beyond cellular coverage, as the radio signal of a cellphone attempting to connect to a base station can be detected by overflying rescue aircraft with special detection gear. Also, users in the United States can sign up through their provider for free text messages when an AMBER Alert goes out for a missing person in their area.
However, most mobile phone networks operate close to capacity during normal times and spikes in call volumes caused by widespread emergencies often overload the system just when it is needed the most. Examples reported in the media where this have occurred include the September 11, 2001 attacks, the 2003 Northeast blackouts, the 2005 London Tube bombings, Hurricane Katrina, the 2006 Hawaii earthquake, and the 2007 Minnesota bridge collapse.
Under FCC regulations, all mobile telephones must be capable of dialing emergency telephone numbers, regardless of the presence of a SIM card or the payment status of the account.
See also: GSM services#Voice charges
When cellular telecoms services were launched, phones and calls were very expensive and early mobile operators (carriers) decided to charge for all air time consumed by the mobile phone user. This resulted in the concept of charging callers for outbound calls and also for receiving calls. As mobile phone call charges diminished and phone adoption rates skyrocketed, more modern operators decided not to charge for incoming calls. Thus some markets have "Receiving Party Pays" models (also known as "Mobile Party Pays"), in which both outbound and received calls are charged, and other markets have "Calling Party Pays" models, by which only making calls produces costs, and receiving calls is free. An exception to this is international roaming tariffs, by which receiving calls are normally also charged.
The European market adopted a "Calling Party Pays" model throughout the GSM environment and soon various other GSM markets also started to emulate this model. As Receiving Party Pays systems have the undesired effect of phone owners keeping their phones turned off to avoid receiving unwanted calls, the total voice usage rates (and profits) in Calling Party Pays countries outperform those in Receiving Party Pays countries. To avoid the problem of users keeping their phone turned off, most Receiving Party Pays countries have either switched to Calling Party Pays, or their carriers offer additional incentives such as a large number of monthly minutes at a sufficiently discounted rate to compensate for the inconvenience.
In most countries today, the person receiving a mobile phone call pays nothing. However, in Hong Kong, Canada, and the United States, one can be charged per minute, for incoming as well as outgoing calls. In the United States and Canada, a few carriers are beginning to offer unlimited received phone calls. For the Chinese mainland, it was reported that both of its two operators will adopt the caller-pays approach as early as January 2007.
The asymmetry of Receiving Party Pays vs Calling Party Pays means a person in a RPP country (such as the US) calling a CPP country (e.g., Europe) pays both the calling charge and the receiving charge and the international toll, while the recipient pays nothing as usual. This is generally reflected in a significantly higher rate to mobile numbers (e.g., 25c/minute vs 3c/minute to a landline). Going the other way there is no difference in rate because the recipient pays the receiving charge. This can make people in CPP countries reluctant to call mobile numbers in RPP countries. There is further asymmetry in that an RPP user can choose a carrier with cheaper incoming minutes, while a CPP user cannot choose a carrier with cheaper RPP-to-CPP rates because these are quoted nationally rather than per carrier. This allows carriers in CPP countries to charge higher rates than would be tolerated in RPP countries.
While some systems of payment are 'pay-as-you-go' where conversation time is purchased and added to a phone unit via an Internet account or in shops or ATMs, other systems are more traditional ones where bills are paid by regular intervals. Pay as you go (also known as "pre-pay") accounts were invented simultaneously in Portugal and Italy and today form more than half of all mobile phone subscriptions. USA, Canada, Costa Rica, Japan and Finland are among the rare countries left where most phones are still contract-based.
One possible alternative is a sim-lock free mobile phone. Sim-lock free mobile phones allow portability between networks so users can use sim cards from various networks and not need to have their phone unlocked.
Human health and behaviour
Main article: Mobile phone radiation and health
Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns (both scientific and public) have been raised about the potential health impacts from regular use. But by 2008, American mobile phones transmitted and received more text messages than phone calls. Numerous studies have reported no significant relationship between mobile phone use and health, but the effect of mobile phone usage on health continues to be an area of public concern.
For example, at the request of some of their customers, Verizon created usage controls that meter service and can switch phones off, so that children could get some sleep. There have also been attempts to limit use by persons operating moving trains or automobiles, coaches when writing to potential players on their teams, and movie theater audiences. By one measure, nearly 40% of automobile drivers aged 16 to 30 years old text while driving, and by another, 40% of teenagers said they could text blindfolded.
Mobile phone dermatitis
According to Reuters, The British Association of Dermatologists is warning of a rash occurring on people’s ears or cheeks caused by an allergic reaction from the nickel surface commonly found on mobile devices’ exteriors. There is also a theory it could even occur on the fingers if someone spends a lot of time text messaging on metal menu buttons. Earlier this year Lionel Bercovitch of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and colleagues tested 22 popular handsets from eight different manufacturers and found nickel in 10 of the devices.
As of 2007, several airlines are experimenting with base station and antenna systems installed to the aeroplane, allowing low power, short-range connection of any phones aboard to remain connected to the aircraft's base station. Thus, they would not attempt connection to the ground base stations as during take off and landing. Simultaneously, airlines may offer phone services to their travelling passengers either as full voice and data services, or initially only as SMS text messaging and similar services. The Australian airline Qantas is the first airline to run a test aeroplane in this configuration in the autumn of 2007. Emirates has announced plans to allow limited mobile phone usage on some flights. However, in the past, commercial airlines have prevented the use of cell phones and laptops, due to the assertion that the frequencies emitted from these devices may disturb the radio waves contact of the airplane.
On March 20, 2008, an Emirates flight was the first time voice calls have been allowed in-flight on commercial airline flights. The breakthrough came after the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the United Arab Emirates-based General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) granted full approval for the AeroMobile system to be used on Emirates. Passengers were able to make and receive voice calls as well as use text messaging. The system automatically came into operation as the Airbus A340-300 reached cruise altitude. Passengers wanting to use the service received a text message welcoming them to the AeroMobile system when they first switched their phones on. The approval by EASA has established that GSM phones are safe to use on airplanes, as the AeroMobile system does not require the modification of aircraft components deemed "sensitive," nor does it require the use of modified phones.
In any case, there are inconsistencies between practices allowed by different airlines and even on the same airline in different countries. For example, Northwest Airlines may allow the use of mobile phones immediately after landing on a domestic flight within the US, whereas they may state "not until the doors are open" on an international flight arriving in the Netherlands. In April 2007 the US Federal Communications Commission officially prohibited passengers' use of cell phones during a flight.
In a similar vein, signs are put up in many countries, such as Canada, the UK and the U.S., at petrol stations prohibiting the use of mobile phones, due to possible safety issues.
18 studies have been conducted on the link between cell phones and brain cancer; A review of these studies found that cell phone use of 10 years or more "give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma". The tumors are found mostly on the side of the head that the cell phone is in contact with. In July 2008, Dr. Ronald Herberman, director of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, warned about the radiation from cell phones. He stated that there was no definitive proof of the link between cell phones and brain tumors but there was enough studies that cell phone usage should be reduced as a precaution. Studies are also being done on children and how cell phone radiation affects their brains. When children start using cell phones at a young age, they will have more years to deal with cell phone radiation than adults will who started using cell phones at a later age. Also, children’s brains are still developing and radiation can affect the growth of the brain easier than adults. Children under 8 brains, in fact, absorb twice the amount of radiation that adult’s brains do. To reduce the amount of radiation being absorbed hands free devices can be used or texting could supplement calls. Calls could also be shortened or limit cell phone usage in rural areas. Radiation is found to be higher in areas that are located away from cell phone towers.
Most schools in the United States and Europe have prohibited mobile phones in the classroom, or in school due to the large number of class disruptions that result from their use, and the potential for cheating via text messaging. In the UK, possession of a mobile phone in an examination can result in immediate disqualification from that subject or from all that student's subjects.. Cell phones can also be used for bullying and threats to other students, or displaying inappropriate material in school.
A working group made up of Finnish telephone companies, public transport operators and communications authorities has launched a campaign to remind mobile phone users of courtesy, especially when using mass transit—what to talk about on the phone, and how to. In particular, the campaign wants to impact loud mobile phone usage as well as calls regarding sensitive matters.
Many US cities with subway transit systems underground are studying or have implemented mobile phone reception in their underground tunnels for their riders. Boston, Massachusetts has investigated such usage in their tunnels, although there is a question of usage etiquette and also how to fairly award contracts to carriers.
The issue of mobile communication and etiquette has also become an issue of academic interest. The rapid adoption of the device has resulted in the intrusion of telephony into situations where it was previously not used. This has exposed the implicit rules of courtesy and opened them to reevaluation.
Use by drivers
Main article: Mobile phones and driving safety
The use of mobile phones by people who are driving has become increasingly common, either as part of their job, as in the case of delivery drivers who are calling a client, or by commuters who are chatting with a friend. While many drivers have embraced the convenience of using their cellphone while driving, some jurisdictions have made the practice against the law, such as Australia, the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador as well as the United Kingdom, consisting of a zero-tolerance system operated in Scotland and a warning system operated in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Officials from these jurisdictions argue that using a mobile phone while driving is an impediment to vehicle operation that can increase the risk of road traffic accidents.
Studies have found vastly different relative risks (RR). Two separate studies using case-crossover analysis each calculated RR at 4, while an epidemiological cohort study found RR, when adjusted for crash-risk exposure, of 1.11 for men and 1.21 for women.
A simulation study from the University of Utah Professor David Strayer compared drivers with a blood alcohol content of 0.08% to those conversing on a cell phone, and after controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, the study concluded that cell phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than intoxicated drivers. Meta-analysis by The Canadian Automobile Association and The University of Illinois found that response time while using both hands-free and hand-held phones was approximately 0.5 standard deviations higher than normal driving (i.e., an average driver, while talking on a cell phone, has response times of a driver in roughly the 40th percentile).
Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than driving while using a hand-held phone, as concluded by case-crossover studies. epidemiological studies, simulation studies, and meta-analysis.Even with this information, California recently passed a cell phone law that requires drivers who are 18 years of age or older to use a hands-free device while using the phone in the vehicle. Moreover, this law also restricts drivers under the age of 18 from using a mobile phone. This law went into effect on July 1, 2008 with a $20 fine for the first offense and $50 fines for each subsequent conviction. The consistency of increased crash risk between hands-free and hand-held phone use is at odds with legislation in over 30 countries that prohibit hand-held phone use but allow hands-free. Scientific literature is mixed on the dangers of talking on a phone versus those of talking with a passenger, with the Accident Research Unit at the University of Nottingham finding that the number of utterances was usually higher for mobile calls when compared to blindfolded and non-blindfolded passengers, but the University of Illinois meta-analysis concluding that passenger conversations were just as costly to driving performance as cell phone ones.
Cellular antenna disguised to look like a treeLike all high structures, cellular antenna masts pose a hazard to low flying aircraft. Towers over a certain height or towers that are close to airports or heliports are normally required to have warning lights. There have been reports that warning lights on cellular masts, TV-towers and other high structures can attract and confuse birds. US authorities estimate that millions of birds are killed near communication towers in the country each year.
Some cellular antenna towers have been camouflaged to make them less obvious on the horizon, and make them look more like a tree.
An example of the way mobile phones and mobile networks have sometimes been perceived as a threat is the widely reported and later discredited claim that mobile phone masts are associated with the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) which has reduced bee hive numbers by up to 75% in many areas, especially near cities in the US. The Independent newspaper cited a scientific study claiming it provided evidence for the theory that mobile phone masts are a major cause in the collapse of bee populations, with controlled experiments demonstrating a rapid and catastrophic effect on individual hives near masts. Mobile phones were in fact not covered in the study, and the original researchers have since emphatically disavowed any connection between their research, mobile phones, and CCD, specifically indicating that the Independent article had misinterpreted their results and created "a horror story". While the initial claim of damage to bees was widely reported, the corrections to the story were almost non-existent in the media.
See also: Electronic waste
There are more than 500 million used mobile phones in the US sitting on shelves or in landfills , and it is estimated that over 125 million will be discarded this year alone. The problem is growing at a rate of more than two million phones per week, putting tons of toxic waste into landfills daily. Several companies offer to buy back and recycle mobile phones from users. In the United States many unwanted but working mobile phones are donated to women's shelters to allow emergency communication.
Main article: History of mobile phones
In 1908, U.S. Patent 887,357 for a wireless telephone was issued in to Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.Cells for mobile phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held cellular radio devices have been available since 1973. A patent for the first wireless phone as we know today was issued in US Patent Number 3,449,750 to George Sweigert of Euclid, Ohio on June 10th, 1969.
In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. 0G mobile phones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not cellular, and so did not feature "handover" from one base station to the next and reuse of radio frequency channels. Like other technologies of the time, it involved a single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology are first described in U.S. Patent 4,152,647 , issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States Government.
This is the first embodiment of all the concepts that formed the basis of the next major step in mobile telephony, the Analog cellular telephone. Concepts covered in this patent (cited in at least 34 other patents) also were later extended to several satellite communication systems. Later updating of the cellular system to a digital system credits this patent.
Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is widely considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973.
The first commercial citywide cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid 1980s (the 1G generation). The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system went online in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981.
In 1983, Motorola DynaTAC was the first approved mobile phone by FCC in the United States. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed multiple, centrally controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small area (a cell). The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.
Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range.
The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network.
The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in 1999. The first commercial payment system to mimick banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart. The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was i-Mode introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.
In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
Until the early 1990s, most mobile phones were too large to be carried in a jacket pocket, so they were typically installed in vehicles as car phones. With the miniaturization of digital components and the development of more sophisticated batteries, mobile phones have become smaller and lighter.
With its use by Nokia as the default ringtone, The Gran Vals by Francisco Tarrega has become arguably the most recognised tune in the world.
Related non-mobile-phone systems
A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle, these often have more powerful transmitters, an external antenna and loudspeaker for handsfree use. They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones.
Cordless telephone (portable phone)
Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of a wired handset. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station, which in turn connects to a conventional land line for calling. Unlike mobile phones, cordless phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber), and which are not shared.
Professional Mobile Radio
Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone systems. Notably, the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Similar attempts have even been made to use TETRA, the European digital PMR standard, to implement public mobile networks.
This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone network. These phones may not be mobile; for example, they may require a mains power supply, they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN phone call.
This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite, which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satellite can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. Since satellite phones are costly, their use is typically limited to people in remote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists, such as mountain climbers and mariners in the open seamobile advertising spending will grow but this is not expected to completely stabilize. This has a few implications..VC funded ad players will go through a spending binge to justify their investment and to grow their base but will see lesser ROI. This also means players like Google and Yahoo who are much larger on the web will still maintain a low profile until probably the end of 2009.
- Globally, Android devices might add to the hype, iPhone could be the global #2 or #3 on most networks & Nokia will still lead most developing countries including India.
- More players are expected to enter mobile advertising in 2009
- Global rates for mobile advertising will continue to grow after some brief fall due to the economic crises. This is because low rates are clearly not sustainable for anyone and an average of $0.10 - $0.20 per click will be the norm for most developed markets
- Many advertisers will still be trying out mobile advertising through 2009. Although 2008 did see some significant activity, actual campaigns and revenues were still too low in 2008.
One or two players in this space might be the right targets for acquisitions so expect acquisitions especially when valuations are right now at an all time low. So expect acquisitions in 09.
- Mobile search might add significant traction, traffic to carrier ARPUs and mobile advertising through 2009
- Expect Mobile advertising services to move beyond the regular self serve model. Advertisers are expecting more and the small budget advertisers will expect 360 degree service from mobile advertisers..leading some mobile ad companies to move up the value chain.
- Developing markets like India / Indonesia will continue to grow in terms of real volumes of traffic with carriers like Airtel / Vodafone significantly gaining on that [especially in India].
- Carriers will continue to try to experiment with mobile search and mobile advertising but will increasingly be insignificant or probably play a much more passive role in the global mobile advertising value chain.
Some of our past predictions and those that were right and those that were wrong..Most of these were centred around India..
– Social mobile marketing will be big in 08 - we were wrong on this..although social media traffic has grown…the large chunk of social media traffic is still not made a big dent on the mobile advertising space as such.
– SMS will continue to generate substantial traffic. WAP traffic as always is underestimated but will continue to surge with more users expected to logon to the mobile Internet. - We were absolutely right on this…
– Major web portals will unveil their mobile portals. - we were spot on on this prediction
– Players like Vodafone could shakeout the mobile data business offering cheaper data access to consumers. Wireless data could get more affordable — we were partly right..Vodafone has got great advertisements but a lousy product portfolio in India..Innovation is not a part of their strategy yet and they’re loosing to Airtel. Though the bright side is wireless data plans are now more affordable.
– Many innovative mobile VAS applications will be launched free of cost to the consumer powered through mobile advertising. Mobile publishers will begin to take mobile advertising as a serious alternative business model - we were quite correct with this prediction, a number of mobile services (free sms, alerts etc) and apps have been launched last year especially in India and these have significantly increased users traffic usage / ARPUs etc..
– More and more advertisers will begin to test mobile as a medium for marketing. Mobile will get acceptance as the third and more powerful medium than the web. Despite that, we don’t really expect to see drastic shift in the allocation of marketing budgets just yet - we were spot on on this..mobile advertising has taken off but on the overall spending has been slow.
– Premium rates for mobile content and mobile services will continue to drop - 10/10 for this prediction…again…premium content rates are continuing to drop across the world.
The Best Mobile Phone Gifts 2008:
1. Pink BlackBerry
2. Apple iPhone 3G
3. Samsung Instinct
4. Samsung Armani Night Effect
5. HTC Touch Diamond
6. BlackBerry Bold
7. LG VU CU920 for AT&T
8. Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1
9. BlackBerry Storm
10. T-Mobile G1
ADSL loop extender
Absolute gain (physics)
Attenuation to crosstalk ratio
Balance return loss
Black facsimile transmission
Building Integrated Timing Supply
Business internal dialing
Busy Hour Call Attempts
Call detail record
Call volume (telecommunications)
Called Subscriber Identification
Carson bandwidth rule
Clock domain crossing
Combined distribution frame
Communications, Media and Entertainment
Complementary code keying
Continuous transmission mode
Data rate units
Degree of start-stop distortion
Design layout record
Dialer Management Platform
Dynamic digital signage
Effective Earth radius
Effective data transfer rate
Effective transmission rate
Error vector magnitude
Flow (computer networking)
Four-wire terminating set
Full width at half maximum
High Speed Link
Intelligent Network Interface Device
Intermediate distribution frame
List of telephony terminology
Local Dialing Disparity
Logic Trunked Radio
Main distribution frame
Mobile phone terms across the world
Mobile switching centre server
Modulation error ratio
Multipoint Control Unit
Network Status Management
Network interface device
Objective Systems Integrators
Operations support systems
Optical modulation amplitude
Optical power budget
Optical power margin
Post over IP
Protected distribution system
Public call office
Public data transmission service
Received noise power
Receiver attack-time delay
Remote call forwarding
Round-trip delay time
Route reestablishment notification
Routing Wavelength Assignment (RWA)
Rural radio service
Sensitivity (radio receiver)
Service Control Point
Speed of service
Standard test signal
Switched multimegabit data services
Telephone Balance Unit
Time division multiple access
Tip and ring
Traffic engineering (telecommunications)
1. Elmo Live
2. WowWee Rovio Spy Robot
4. Kyocera Ceramic Kitchen Knife
5. Panasonic EVOLTA AA Battery
6. U.S. Military Tactical Flashlight
7. My Real Digital Video Camera
8. Kodak EasyShare W1020 Wi-Fi Photo Frame
9. Aiptek PocketCinema V10
10. Victorinox Swiss Army Champ SOS
Top 10 Notebooks and Netbooks
1. Acer Aspire One
2. Dell Inspiron Mini 9
3. Asus Eee PC 1000H
4. Pink Notebook Dell Studio 17
5. HP Pavilion TX2510 Touchscreen Notebook
6. New Apple MacBook
7. Toshiba Qosmio G55
8. Sony VAIO TT
9. Samsung NC10
10. HP Mini 1000
Top 10 Desktop PCs
1. Asus Eee Box
2. HP TouchSmart
3. Dell Studio Desktop
4. Acer Predator
5. Dell Studio Hybrid
6. Reactor Gaming Computer
7. Dell Studio XPS Core i7 PC
8. Alienware ALX X-58 Core i7 Gaming PC
9. 24 inch Apple iMac
10. Tiny Shuttle X2700N PC
Top 10 Digital Cameras
1. Nikon D90
2. Canon 50D
3. Sony DSC-T700
4. Nikon D80
5. Polaroid PoGo Instant Photo Printer
6. Canon PowerShot G10
7. Nikon Coolpix S60
8. Panasonic Lumix DMC-G1
9. Sanyo VPC-T700 7MP Camera
10. Pentax Optio W60 waterproof Digital Camera
Top 10 Video Cameras
1. Flip mino Camcorder
2. Canon VIXA HF11 HD Camcorder
3. Aiptek Action HD 1080p Camcorder
4. Sanyo Xacti VPC-E2 Camcorder
5. Action Sports Video Camera
6. Sony HDR-SR12
7. JVC Everio GZ-HD40 HD Camcorder
8. Flip MinoHD
9. Sony HDR-TG1 HD Camcorder
10. Canon VIXIA HF100 AVCHD camcorder
Top 10 Portable Devices
1. Archos 5 250GB PMP
2. Knight Rider GPS
3. Amazon Kindle
4. Microsoft Zune 120GB
5. Apple iPod nano 4G
6. Apple iPod touch 2G
7. iRiver Spinn
8. Garmin Oregon 400 Outdoor GPS
9. Pink Sony portable DVD Player
10. Unique Wireless Earbuds
Top 10 Mobile Phones
1. Pink BlackBerry
2. Apple iPhone 3G
3. Samsung Instinct
4. Samsung Armani Night Effect
5. HTC Touch Diamond
6. BlackBerry Bold
7. LG VU CU920 for AT&T
8. Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1
9. BlackBerry Storm
10. T-Mobile G1
Top 10 Video Games
1. Nintendo Wii
2. Sony PSP PSP-3000
3. Sony PS3
4. Mini-Motion Cars of Fury Game
5. Microsoft Xbox 360
6. Guitar Hero World Tour
7. Thrustmaster Glow Saber for Wii
8. Rock Band 2
9. Logitech G25 Wheel
10. Wii Speak
Top 10 TVs
1. Vizio VP322
2. Sony Bravia XBR8 HDTV
3. 65" Panasonic TH-65PZ850U Plasma HDTV
4. JVC 42 inch HDTV with iPod Dock
5. Samsung LN55A950 55 inch HDTV
6. Haier HLT71 7-inch LCD TV
7. Toshiba 19LV506 HDTV with internal DVD
8. Mitsubishi LaserVue Laser TV
9. 103 inch Panasonic Plasma HDTV
10. Pioneer KURO 60-inch 1080p Plasma HDTV
Top 10 Hometheater Components
1. Toshiba XDE DVD 1080p Player
2. JBL WEM-1 Wireless Speaker Kit
3. JVC NX-PN7 Dual iPod and iPhone Dock
4. Panasonic DMP-BD50 Blu-ray Player
5. Roku Netflix Player
6. Logitech Squeezebox Boom
7. Sony VPL-HW10 Projector
8. Logitech Pure-Fi Anytime
9. TiVo HD XL
10. Yamaha YSP-4000 Sound Projector
Blue box - a device that was used to bypass the normal long distance call switching tones typically used to obtain free calls.
call originator - (or calling party, caller or A-party) a person or device that initiates a telephone call by dialling a telephone number.
call waiting - a system that notifies a caller of another incoming telephone call by sounding a sound in the earpiece.
conference call (multi-party call)
emergency telephone number
fax - (contraction of facsimile) a device connected to the telephone network to enable documents to be scanned and sent to a receiving fax machine.
intelligent Network Interface Device (iNID) - replaces the Network Interface Device outside a subscriber's house like when customers subscribe to AT&T's U-verse brand of services.
interactive voice response (IVR)
Plain old telephone service, or "POTS"
red telephone box
ringer equivalency number (REN)
rural radio service
trap and trace
vertical service code
Wide Area Telephone Service (WATS)
Acronym Name Notes
1ESS Number 1 Electronic Switching System US
1FR Flat rate service US
2G second-generation mobile telephone
2.5G Enhanced 2G mobile telephone
3G third-generation mobile telephone
4WTS Four-wire termination set US
ACD Automatic Call Distribution/Director
ACTS Advanced Coin Telephone Service US
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ANI Automatic Number Identification US
AMA Automatic Message Accounting US
BOK Unblocking UK
CCIS Common Channel Interoffice Signaling
CID Caller ID
CLI Caller Line Identification Europe
CLID Caller Line ID UK
CTI Computer telephony integration
COSMOS Wire records
DDCO Direct Dial Central Office (Opposite of DID) US
DDD Direct Distance Dialing US
DDI Direct Dialing In UK
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
DID Direct Inward Dialing US
DMS Digital Multiplex System Can
DNIS Dialed Number Identification System US
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DTMF dual-tone multi-frequency
FDM Frequency-division multiplexing
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global system for mobile communications
IDDD International Direct Distance Dialing US
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier US
ISD International Subscriber Dialling UK and India
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
IVR interactive voice response
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MF Multi-frequency US
PABX Private Automatic Branch eXchange Europe
PBX Private Branch eXchange US
PMBX Private Manual Branch eXchange UK
POTS plain old telephone service
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
RCMAC Recent Change Memory Administration Center US
REN ringer equivalency number
SMS Short Message Service or text messages
SF Single Frequency supervision tone (2600) US
SP Lock Unlocking UK
SS7 Signaling System 7
STD Subscriber trunk dialling UK and India
T-CXR T-carrier US
TAPI Telephony Application Programming Interface
TSPS Traffic Service Position System
TXE Telephone eXchange Electronic UK
UAX Unit Automatic eXchange UK
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WATS Wide Area Telephone Service US
WTAI Wireless Telephony Applications Interface
VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol
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